Key Concepts


Brokerages provide you with a connection to the market so you can fill trades. Brokerage models simulate the live behavior of a real brokerage. To avoid sending invalid orders for execution in live trading, the brokerage model validates your orders before LEAN sends them to the real brokerage. Brokerage models combine together all of the models relevant for a brokerage. If you set the appropriate brokerage model, the supported order types, default markets, and some of the security-level models are appropriately set in your algorithm.

Set Models

To set a brokerage model, in the Initializeinitialize method, call the SetBrokerageModelset_brokerage_model method with a BrokerageName and an AccountType. If you set a brokerage model, it overrides any security level models you manually set in your algorithm.

SetBrokerageModel(BrokerageName.OandaBrokerage); // Defaults to margin account
SetBrokerageModel(BrokerageName.Bitfinex, AccountType.Margin); // Overrides the default account type
self.set_brokerage_model(BrokerageName.OANDA_BROKERAGE) # Defaults to margin account
self.set_brokerage_model(BrokerageName.BITFINEX, AccountType.MARGIN) # Overrides the default account type

In live trading, LEAN doesn't ignore your SetBrokerageModelset_brokerage_model method calls. LEAN uses some of the brokerage model rules to catch invalid orders before they reach your real brokerage.

To view all the pre-built brokerage models, see Supported Models.

Default Behavior

The default brokerage model is the DefaultBrokerageModel, but LEAN has many other brokerage models you can use in your algorithms. For more information about the DefaultBrokerageModel, see QuantConnect Paper Trading.

Modeled Properties

Brokerage models model that following properties:

  • Transaction fees
  • Supported asset classes
  • Account types
  • Support for extended market hours
  • Leverage for assets
  • Trade settlement rules
  • Order properties and updates

Model Structure

Brokerage models should extend the DefaultBrokerageModel class. Extensions of the DefaultBrokerageModel class should implement the following methods:

// In the Initialize method, set the custom brokerage model
SetBrokerageModel(new MyBrokerageModel());
// Define the custom brokerage model outside of the algorithm
class MyBrokerageModel : DefaultBrokerageModel
    public override decimal RequiredFreeBuyingPowerPercent { get; }

    public new IReadOnlyDictionary<SecurityType, string> DefaultMarkets  = new Dictionary<SecurityType, string>
        {SecurityType.Equity, Market.USA}

    public MyBrokerageModel(AccountType accountType = AccountType.Margin)
        : base(accountType)

    public override bool CanSubmitOrder(Security security, Order order,
        out BrokerageMessageEvent message)
        return base.CanSubmitOrder(security, order, out message);

    public override bool CanUpdateOrder(Security security, Order order,
        UpdateOrderRequest request, out BrokerageMessageEvent message)
        return base.CanUpdateOrder(security, order, request, out message);

    public override bool CanExecuteOrder(Security security, Order order)
        return base.CanExecuteOrder(security, order);

    public override void ApplySplit(List<OrderTicket> tickets, Split split)
        base.ApplySplit(tickets, split);

    public override decimal GetLeverage(Security security)
        return base.GetLeverage(security);

    public override IBenchmark GetBenchmark(SecurityManager securities)
        return base.GetBenchmark(securities);

    public override IFillModel GetFillModel(Security security)
        return base.GetFillModel(security);

    public override IFeeModel GetFeeModel(Security security)
        return base.GetFeeModel(security);

    public override ISlippageModel GetSlippageModel(Security security)
        return base.GetSlippageModel(security);

    public override ISettlementModel GetSettlementModel(Security security)
        return base.GetSettlementModel(security);

    public override IBuyingPowerModel GetBuyingPowerModel(Security security)
        return base.GetBuyingPowerModel(security);

    public override IMarginInterestRateModel GetMarginInterestRateModel(Security security)
        return base.GetMarginInterestRateModel(security);

    public override IShortableProvider GetShortableProvider(Security security)
        return base.GetShortableProvider(security);
# In the Initialize method, set the custom brokerage model

# Define the custom brokerage model outside of the algorithm
class MyBrokerageModel(DefaultBrokerageModel):
    default_markets = {SecurityType.EQUITY: Market.USA}
    required_free_buying_power_percent = 0

    def __init__(self, accountType: account_type = account_type.margin):
        self.account_type = accountType
    def can_submit_order(self, security: Security, order: Order,
         message: BrokerageMessageEvent) -> bool:
        return super().can_submit_order(security, order, message)

    def can_update_order(self, security: Security, order: Order,
         request: UpdateOrderRequest, message: BrokerageMessageEvent) -> bool:
        return super().can_update_order(security, order, request, message)

    def can_execute_order(self, security: Security, order: Order) -> bool:
        return super().can_execute_order(security, order)

    def apply_split(self, tickets: List[OrderTicket], split: Split) -> None:
        super().apply_split(tickets, split)

    def get_leverage(self, security: Security) -> float:
        return super().get_leverage(security)

    def get_benchmark(self, securities: SecurityManager) -> IBenchmark:
        return super().get_benchmark(securities)

    def get_fill_model(self, security: Security) -> IFillModel:
        return super().get_fill_model(security)

    def get_fee_model(self, security: Security) -> IFeeModel:
        return super().get_fee_model(security)

    def get_slippage_model(self, security: Security) -> ISlippageModel:
        return super().get_slippage_model(security)

    def get_settlement_model(self, security: Security) -> ISettlementModel:
        return super().get_settlement_model(security)

    def get_buying_power_model(self, security: Security) -> IBuyingPowerModel:
        return super().get_buying_power_model(security)

    def get_margin_interest_rate_model(self, security: Security) -> IMarginInterestRateModel:
        return super().get_margin_interest_rate_model(security)

    def get_shortable_provider(self, security: Security) -> IShortableProvider:
        return super().get_shortable_provider(security)

For a full example algorithm, see this backtestthis backtest.

Custom brokerage models give you enormous control over your algorithm behavior and allow you to model virtually any brokerage in the world.

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